Functions of management
Management has been defined in the form of a process. Under the management process (planning, organising,staffing, directing and controlling), many activities inter-related to each other are included. These activities are known as functions or elements of management.
Functions of management are pictorially presented in seariatim in the following diagrams:
1/ Planning: It refers to thinking before hand. In other words, planning is the determination of future course of action to achieve a desired result. Under planning, it is ascertained that what should be done, how it should be done and who should do it. If before the commencement of a job all these points are not contemplated then the objective of a business cannot be achieved.
2/ Organising: It refers to harmonious adjustment of various parts to achieve common objectives. In order to make the first function of management (i.e.,planning) functional, 'a structure of roles' needs to be framed and sustained. The process of creating this structure of roles is known is organising. Planning is just to put some idea in writting, but to convert that idea into reality, a group of people is needed. Further, to streamline the activities of this group of people, organising is required. Under this, the whole project is devided into variours small jobs, to assign these jobs to designated posts (which will clarify that a particular job will be performed at which post), to unite various jobs into one department, to clarify the rights and duties of employees to be appointed at various posts, and to define relationship among various posts (employees).
Following steps are taken to complete the organising function of management: 1/ Identification and Division of work, 2/ Departmentalisation, 3/ Assignment of duties, 4/ Establishing reporting relations.
3/ Staffing: It refers to filling and keeping filled the post with people. In planning,ideas are given a written shape, on the other hand organising, with the objective of converting these idea into reality, prepares a structure of various posts. After organising comes staffing which deploys people on these posts so that jobs can be performed. In view of the fact that the success of an organisation is commensurate with how adroitly every employee performs his job, the importance of staffing function increases even more.
Following steps are taken to complte the staffing function of management: 1/ Estimating the manpower requirements, 2/ Recruitment, 3/ Selection, 4/ Placement and orientation, 5/ Training and development, 6/ Performance appraisal, 7/ Promotion and career planning, 8/ Compensation.
4/ Directing: It refers to instructing,guiding,communicating and inspiring people in the organisation.Under directing following four activities are included: 1/ Supervision, 2/ Communication, 3/ Leadership, 4/ Motivation. Brief description of these four activities is as follows:
1/ Supervision: It refers to monitor the progress of routine work of one's subordinates and guiding them properly. Supervision is an important element of the directing function of management. Supervision has an important feature that face to face contact between supervisor and his subordinate is a must.
2/ Communication: It refers to an art of transferring fact,ideas,feelings, etc. from one person to another and making him understand them. A manager has to continously tell his subordinates about what to do, how to do, and when to do various things. Also it is very essential to know their reactions. To do all this it becomes essential to develop effective communication facilities. Communication by developing mutual understanding inclucates a sence of cooperation which builds an environment of coordination in the organisition.
3/ Leadership: It refers to influencing others in such a manner to do what the leader wants them to do. Leadership plays an important role in directing. Only through this quality, a manager can inculate trust and zeal among the subordinates.
4/ Motivation: It refers to the process which excites people to work for attainment of a desired objective. Among the various factors of production, it is only the human factor which is dynamic and provides mobility to other physical resources. If human resource goes static then other resources automatically turn immobile. Thus, it becomes essential to motivate human resource to keep them dynamic, aware and eager to perform their duty. Both monetary and non-monetary incentives are given to employees for motivation.
5/ Controlling: It refers to bringing the actual results closer to the desired results. Under this, the manager monitors whether the jobs are being performed in accordance with set plans or not. He also checks whether the quality or quality of job performed is in allignment with the pre-determined standards/parameters or not. Deviations are then checked for matching actual performance with pre-determined standards.
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