Elements of Communication Process

Communication process is concerned with sharing and understanding of information.

      It consists of a few elements explained below :-
1. Sender
     The communication process starts with the sender, the person or group who wants to transmit the message to another person or group. He is not interested in the words, date or symbols themselves but uses them for conveying meaning to others.

2. Message
    The physical form of the idea of information conveyed which can be understood through receiver's sensory receptors  (hearing, seeing, smelling,  feeling, touching). Messages are not the meaning but indicative of meanings. Meaning lies in the receiver's mind not in the message. For example, a manager reminds a worker about a deadline with an intention to cooperate but the worker interprets it as an indicator of annoyance.

3. Encoding
     Encoding is putting the meaning of the message into appropriate words, symbols, gestures and other form of expression for the purpose of sending an intentional message.

4. Channel
    Channel or medium is the method or vehicle used to transmit the message. For business communication, commonly used channels are telephones, letters, memos, E-mail etc.

5. Receiver
    The person or group who perceives the message and attatches some meaning to the message, is the receiver. In the reasonably good communication situation, the intended message is received by the receiver. But in imperfect situation, it is possible that the delivered written message may be buried under heaps of paper lying on the recipient's desk, or oral message may be forgotten by the listener. By defination, if there is no receiver, there is no communication.

6. Decoding
     Even if message is received, it is possible that it is not understood in the same sense and spirit, as the sender intended it to be, because the receiver decodes it differently. Decoding means attaching meaning to the message. Meanings are already in the receiver's mind, not in the message. The more the sender's message commensurates with the receiver's understanding, the more effective the communication will be.

7. Feedback
    Feedback is the reversal of the communication process in which the receiver expresses the response to the sender's message. The response or reaction may be smiles, signs, or may be asking question or calling further explanation or affirmation.


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